Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan. Japan's name mean "sun-origin" and is often referred to as the "Land of the Rising Sun".
Japan is a volcanic archipelago of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, which comprise about ninety-seven percent
of Japan's land area. Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with over 126 million people. Honshu's Greater Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world,
with over 30 million residents. Tokyo is Japan's capital and its largest city.
Japan is a major economic and political power, a developed country which has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing
power. Japan ranks high in metrics of prosperity such as the Human Development Index, with the Japanese population enjoying the highest life expectancy of any country in the world
and the infant mortality rate being the third lowest globally.
Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and
development budget, the third largest in the world.